Terpene Research Report - Part 2

In addition to our previous terpene report, we welcome you to take a look at the terpenes in this secondary report. Although they may not be as prevalent as the terpenes in the first report, all of them are found in at least one of our products. They also are known to cause many beneficial effects that you may experience while using our products. As you know, plant-based medicine has been used by humans for tens of thousands of years, in all populated regions of the Earth. Many of the plants’ healing superpowers come from the Terpenes.

The cannabis plant family, throughout its diverse genetics, has one of the most abundant variety of terpenes found in nature. We go on to cover other important terpenes that are present in LK Remedies’ products: Ocimene, Eucalyptol, Nerolidol, Bisabolol, Guaiol, Farnesene, and Menthol. *It is important to note that most of the existing research has been done on terpenes that were derived from non-cannabis plants. We look forward to seeing the results of the ongoing research that is now being conducted on Cannabis derived terpenes, to see if they possess any additional superpowers.

We have taken excerpts from studies that have been conducted for each of the terpenes, followed by a direct link to the actual research. The terpenes are subcategorized by the researched effects.

Here is what we have to add:

OCIMENE

ocimene set.jpeg

Terpene most prevalent in basil, bay, hops, and bitter orange tree.


Effect: Antiviral

Studies:

The essential oil of Laurus nobilis was studied in relation to the SARS virus. A major constituent of the oil was found to be ocimene. This study concluded that ocimene had antiviral properties.”

“What makes this terpene stand out is its ability to act as an antiviral compound, potentially helping to treat viral respiratory infections.”

 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and Nutrition, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS). 

Effect: Anti-fungal

Studies:

“In [one] study, the [plant] Ferulago carduchorum’s essential oil was used to study the reaction to Candida albicans [yeast fungus]. The study concluded that ocimene was toxic, proving that it had antifungal properties.”

“Another attribute of this terpene is its potential antifungal effects, specifically with the Candida which can sometimes cause oral thrush, showing as a coated tongue.”

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Eucalyptol

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Terpene most prevalent in camphor laurel, bay leaves, tea tree, wormwood, rosemary, and common sage.

Effect: Anti-inflammatory

Studies:

“The anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol have been known since this 2000 study found cineole to be an anti-inflammatory. Since then it has been shown to help with various types of inflammations all over the body. Rhinosinusitis is an inflammation of one, or both, of the paranasal sinuses; it is usually acute and caused by some sort of infection. This 2004 double blind, placebo controlled study, found conclusive evidence that cineole helps treat rhinosinusitis.” 

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, P.O.B. 3157, 60430-270 Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas, and can be acute (temporary) or chronic (lasting). Eucalyptol was shown in 2013 to help mitigate the inflammatory effects of acute pancreatitis in mice. 

Post-Graduate Programme in Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, 60430-140 Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is the name for a group of conditions, including Crohn’s Disease, which are typified by an inflammation of part, or all, of the digestive tract and ulcerative colitis. As with all other types of inflammation, eucalyptol was shown to help mitigate both of these harms, making it a promising treatment for IBD.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dental and Nursery, Federal University of Ceará, CP 3157, 60430-270 Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Effect: Analgesic

Studies:

Eucalyptol has been shown to reduce pain based on its effects shown in different conditions such as tuberculosis, cancer, asthma, and more.

“[A] 2014 study looked at the effects of all the terpenes contained in Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil, not just eucalyptol, and found it to be weakly effective at mitigating the effects of tuberculosis.”

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, 110062, India.

This 2002 study on eucalyptol’s effects on cancer found that it induced apoptosis, cell-death, in two different types of leukemia but not in the one type of stomach cancer studied. That study was the first time eucalyptol was shown to help combat the growth of a type of cancer in humans, not mice or other animals. Last year, researchers looking at colon cancer found that treatment with eucalyptol was “an effective strategy to treat colorectal cancer.” Last May, eucalyptol was shown to be not only an anti-proliferative but also anti-cholesterogenic, the authors of the report say their findings suggest these effects work in unison to combat cancer.”

Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu-city, Mie 514-0001, Japan.

Eucalyptol has been known to be a very potent treatment for asthma for years, but a 1998 study proved this folk knowledge to be fact. In 2003, a double-blind placebo-controlled study confirmed that eucalyptol was a potential treatment for asthma and other upper-airway inflammations.

Department of Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Medical Outpatient Clinic, Bonn University Hospital, Wilhelmestrasse 35-37, Bonn D-53111, Germany.

NEROLIDOL

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Terpene mostly found in ginger, jasmine, lavender, lemongrass, and tea tree.


Effect: Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic

Studies:

“The results suggest that nerolidol possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have significant activity against acute and especially chronic inflammation, and have central and peripheral antinociceptive effects which support the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammation.”

Department of Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS), Tehran, Iran.

Effect: Antioxidant and Sedative

“The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus against oxidative stress in neuronal cells compared to ascorbic acid (positive control) as well as evaluated the nerolidol sedative effects by open field test compared to diazepam (positive control). Nerolidol showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.”

Postgraduate Program in Pharmacology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, Piauí, 64049-550, Brazil.


Effect: Anti-fungal

Studies:

“In the present study, we elucidated the antifungal activities of eugenol and nerolidol isolated from Japanese cypress oil in a guinea pig model infected by Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum). A minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), skin lesion scoring, hair culture and histopathologic examination of skin tissues were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of these oils. [.5-2% of nerolidol was present.] Based on these MICs, eugenol and nerolidol were adjusted to 10% concentration with a base of Vaseline petroleum jelly and were applied topically to the skin lesion infected with M. gypseum daily for 3 weeks. Nerolidol improved the skin lesions infected by M. gypseum, but eugenol did not, as determined in the hair culture test.”

Laboratory of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.


Effect: Antileishmanial

Definition: Leishmaniasis: a tropical and subtropical disease caused by leishmania and transmitted by the bite of sandflies. It affects either the skin or the internal organs

Studies:

“In a study on mice, both injections of nerolidol at 100mg per kilogram of body weight for 12 days, and ointment administration at 5% and 10% concentrations for 4 weeks dramatically reduced the sizes of affected areas. While the disease was not completely cured, nerolidol may be effective as part of a therapeutic preparation.”

Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Effect: Neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease

Studies:

Studies: Our findings are the first to show that the neuroprotective effect of nerolidol is mediated through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which strongly supports its therapeutic potential for the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease (PD).

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 17666, Al Ain, UAE.

Review Studies:

Several studies stood out for their relevance regarding the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Nerolidol demonstrated anticholinesterasic, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic activities, thus classifying it as a promising phytochemical for the development of therapeutic drugs.

Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Piaui, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, Piaui, Brazil


Effect: Antimalarial

Studies:

“Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene present as an essential oil in several plants that is used in scented products and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a food-flavouring agent. In this study, the antimalarial activity of nerolidol was investigated in a mouse model of malaria. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and were treated with 1000 mg/kg/dose nerolidol in two doses delivered by the oral or inhalation route. In mice treated with nerolidol, parasitaemia was inhibited by >99% (oral) and >80% (inhalation) until 14 days after infection (P <0.0001). On Day 30 post-infection, the survival rate of orally treated mice was 90% compared with 16% in controls (P <0.0001). In contrast, inhalation-treated mice showed a survival rate of 50% vs. 42% in controls (P > 0.05). The toxicity of nerolidol administered by either route was not significant, whilst genotoxicity was observed only at the highest dose tested. These results indicate that combined use of nerolidol and other drugs targeting different points of the same isoprenoid pathway may be an effective treatment for malaria.”

Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Lineu Prestes 1374, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.


BISABOLOL

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Commonly found in German chamomile and the South American Candeia tree.

Effect: Anti-inflammatory

Studies: “This study was undertaken to evaluate its therapeutic profile against skin inflammation using in-vitro, in-vivo and in-silico assays…TPA-induced ear thickness, ear weight and lipid peroxidation and histopathological damage in the ear tissue were also significantly inhibited by topical application of α-(-)-bisabolol in a dose dependent manner. In-vitro and in-vivo toxicity profiles indicate that it is safe for topical application on skin. Molecular docking study also revealed its strong binding affinity to the active site of the pro-inflammatory proteins. These findings suggested that α-(-)-bisabolol may be a useful therapeutic candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation.”

Molecular Bioprospection Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Lucknow, India. 

Effect: Gastroprotective

Studies: “The effects of Matricaria recutita and alpha-bisabolol, a bioactive component from Chamomile species, were investigated against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 1 mL per animal) in rats…Alpha-bisabolol at oral doses of 50 and 100 mg=kg markedly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by ethanol to the extent of 87% and 96%, respectively.”

Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Effect: Antimicrobial

Studies: “[The objective was] to investigate the antimicrobial effect of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil alone and in combination against the halitosis-associated Gram-positive bacillus Solobacterium moorei. [The results that were found] show that Halitosis-associated bacterium S. moorei is susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tea tree oil and alpha-bisabolol, suggesting that these compounds might be beneficial in oral healthcare products.”

Institute of Preventive Dentistry and Oral Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland


GUAIOL

GUAIOL .jpeg

Most prevalent in the oil of guaiacum and cypress pine.

Effect: Antioxidant

Studies:

“The aims of this study were to investigate the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Xylopia sericea fruits (OXS). The fruits of this species are popularly used for medicinal purposes, and as a condiment in food preparation.”

One of the most “abundant constituents” [of OXS] was guaiol (13.93%).

“OXS presented a significant antioxidant activity and also a high bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Those results evidenced the potential of OXS to treat human bacterial infections and as an antimicrobial ingredient for food preservation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28134988

1- Laboratory of Bioactive Natural Products, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

2- Department of Botany, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.


Effect:  Antimicrobial

Studies:

“Microbial transformation of the sesquiterpene (-)-guaiol (1) [1(5)-guaien-11-ol] was investigated using three fungi, Rhizopus stolonifer, Cunninghamella elegans, and Macrophomina phaseolina… all metabolites were found to be new compounds as deduced on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their activity against several bacterial strains.”

H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.


FARNESENE

farnesene coppppy.jpeg

Most prevalent in the skin of apples and a variety of plants such as potatoes.

Effect: Antimicrobial and Antioxidant

Studies:

“The volatile oils from fresh flowers of A. mollissima and A. cyclops (growing in Tunisia) obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC then GC/MS.” Farnesene was one of the most present compounds found in these oils (51.5%).

“Antioxidant activity of the isolated oils was studied by varied assays, i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS); the isolated oils showed lowest IC50 (4 - 39 μg/ml) indicating their high antioxidant activity. The α-glucosidase inhibitor activity was also evaluated and Acacia oils were found to be able to strongly inhibit this enzyme with IC50 values (81 - 89 μg/ml) very close to that of acarbose which was used as positive control.”

1- Laboratory of Heterocyclic Chemistry, Natural Products and Reactivity, Team: Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, Faculty of Science of Monastir, University of Monastir, 5019, Monastir, Tunisia.

2- Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases and Biological Active Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Monastir, Avenue Avicenne, 5019, Monastir, Tunisia.


Effect: Anti fungal

Studies:

“The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. from Cameroon was investigated by GC and GC/MS and their antifungal activities evaluated by the agar dilution method… The flower oil contained mainly (E)-β-farnesene (22.3–21.1%)… These oils exhibited broad antifungal activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The flower oil was found to be more active than the leaf oil. Candida albicans was the most sensitive fungus with a MIC of 2.25 μL/mL.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10412905.2005.9698896


MENTHOL

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Most prevalent in peppermint, cornmint, and other mint oils.
Effect: Anti-inflammatory

“In order to evaluate the potential role of L-menthol and mint oil as an anti-inflammatory drug, preclinical in vitro-investigations were performed using LPS-stimulated monocytes from healthy volunteers… L-menthol significantly suppressed the production of each of the three inflammation mediators by monocytes in vitro… These results obtained with human monocytes suggest preferable anti-inflammatory effects of L-menthol”

Abteilung Pneumologie, Medizinische Universitäts-Poliklinik, Wilhelmstrasse 35-37, D-53111 Bonn, Germany. 




























Petya Yankova