Terpene Research Report (1st Edition)
Plant-based medicine has been used by humans for tens of thousands of years, in all populated regions of the Earth. Over the last several decades, there has been a renewal of interest in natural remedies as an alternative to the pharmaceutical drugs. Scientists from around the planet begun to research the compounds that make these plants so effective. Many of the plants’ healing superpowers come from the Terpenes.
With more than 40,000 different molecules known, terpenes are the largest family of natural compounds in nature.(*) These organic compounds are a part of what gives every fruit, vegetable or plant we consume their unique flavor and scent.
Research has shown that terpenes interact with most, if not all the regulatory systems throughout the body. They can modulate such important functions as sleep, mood, appetite, the immune system and overall homeostasis. Terpenes have also been shown to target pain in different ways, both relieving it (as an analgesic & anti-inflammatory) and blocking it (as an antinociceptive).
The cannabis plant family, throughout its diverse genetics, has one of the most abundant variety of terpenes found in nature. We begin by covering the terpenes which are most abundantly present in the Lock & Key Remedies products: Myrcene, Caryophyllene, Limonene, Linalool, Pinene, Humulene and Terpinolene.
It is important to note that most of the existing research has been done on terpenes that were derived from non-cannabis plants. We look forward to seeing the results of the ongoing research that is now being conducted on Cannabis derived terpenes, to see if they possess any additional superpowers.
We have taken excerpts from studies that have been conducted for each of the terpenes, followed by a direct link to the actual research. The terpenes are subcategorized by the researched effects.
Here is what we have so far:
Effect: Relieving and Blocking Pain
Antinociceptive - “The action or process of blocking the detection of a painful or injurious stimulus by sensory neurons” (*)
“Myrcene is analgesic, and such activity, in contrast to cannabinoids, is blocked by naloxone suggesting an opioid-like mechanism” - (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Campus, Brazil.)
"Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs. (Ethan B Russo, GW Pharmaceuticals, Vashon, WA, USA)
“The results suggest that myrcene is capable of inducing antinociception in mice, probably mediated by α2-adrenoceptor stimulated release of endogenous opioids.”
Definition - acting to reduce certain signs of inflammation, as swelling, tenderness, fever, and pain.
“Myrcene has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in human chondrocytes and, thus, its ability to halt or, at least, slow down cartilage destruction and osteoarthritis progression warrants further investigation.” (Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Faculty of Pharmacy)
Definition - Having a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect; reducing or relieving anxiety, stress, irritability, or excitement.
“Our study showed that citral, limonene and myrcene presented sedative as well as motor relaxant effects.” (Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals - Bisset & Wichtl, 2004)
Effect: Anti-inflammatory with increased mucosal protection of the stomach and small intestine lining.
Definition - The term 'cytoprotection' means protection against gastric mucosal injury by a mechanism other than inhibition or neutralisation of gastric acid. (*)
“beta-caryophyllene elicited anti-inflammatory effects without any indication of gastric mucosal damage typical of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Furthermore, this compound manifested cytoprotective effects, rendering the two-dimensional efficacious beta-caryophyllene to be a clinically safe and potentially useful agent.” (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Japan)
Effect: Analgesic during Chemotherapy
“Effectively attenuated painful peripheral neuropathy associated with chemotherapy medication” (Department of Pharmacology, Biological Sciences Centre, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil)
Effect: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-Arthritic
“Anti-inflammatory study is suggestive that Beta-Caryophyllene has prominent anti-arthritic activity which may be attributed to its antiinflammatory activity.” (Dept. of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Anurag Group of Institutions,Ghatkesar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India)
Effect: Anticancer Activities
“Possess significant anticancer activities, affecting growth and proliferation of numerous cancer cells” “due to the fact that chronic pain is often an element of cancer disease, the double activity of BCP, anticancer and analgesic, as well as its beneficial influence on the efficacy of classical chemotherapeutics, is particularly valuable in oncology.“ (Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland)
"In conclusion, we demonstrated that dietary BCP suppressed body weight gain, solid tumor growth and LN metastasis in HFD-fed C57BL/6N mice harboring B16F10 melanoma allografts."
"These findings suggest that BCP can be recommended to individuals who have a risk of melanoma and are consuming a HFD." (β-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice, Carcinogenesis, Volume 36, Issue 9, 1 September 2015, Pages 1028–1039,)
“These results indicate that BCP acts via multiple neuroprotective mechanisms in our murine model and suggest that BCP may be viewed as a potential treatment and/or preventative agent for Parkinson's disease.” (Departamento de Farmacobiología CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico)
“The present study suggests that BCP has the potential therapeutic efficacy to elicit significant neuroprotection by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities mediated by activation of the CB2 receptors.” (Departments of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates Universityy)
“In our previous experiments on animals evidence was found that citrus fragrance can restore the stress-induced immunosuppression, suggesting that citrus fragrance may have an effect on restoring the homeostatic balance. [ . . . ] It was given to 12 depressive subjects and the results indicated that the doses of antidepressants necessary for the treatment of depression could be markedly reduced. The treatment with citrus fragrance normalized neuroendocrine hormone levels and immune function and was rather more effective than antidepressants.” (Department of Psychiatry, Mie University School of Medicine, Japan)
"These findings suggest that acute administration of the (+)-limonene epoxide exerts an anxiolytic-like effect on mice, and it could serve as a new approach for the treatment anxiety, since it practically does not produce toxic effects." (Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action, Brain ResearchVolume 1448, 11 April 2012, Pages 56-62)
Effect: Cancer Apoptosis
Definition - Form of cell death, also known as programmed cell death, in which a ‘suicide’ program is activated within the cell, leading to fragmentation of the DNA, shrinkage of the cytoplasm, membrane changes and cell death without lysis or damage to neighboring cells. It is a normal phenomenon, occurring frequently in a multicellular organism. (*)
“[ . . . ] we investigated the effects of d-limonene on colon cancer cell viability and its potential mechanism of action in vitro. After 48 h of treatment, d-limonene suppressed the viability of LS174T cells in a dose-dependent manner and caused a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death.” (Department of Breast Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Cancer Research Institute, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, PR China)
“The active principle identified in fruit and vegetables and the molecular targets modulated may be the basis for how these dietary agents [limonene, amongst others] not only prevent but also treat cancer and other diseases. This work reaffirms what Hippocrates said 25 centuries ago, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” (Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas)
“Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene.” (Department of Biochemistry, Recombinant Protein Laboratory, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran)
Effect: Inhalation of Limonene May Reduce Allergic Airway Inflammation
“Limonene is one of the main flavonoids which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the production of reactive oxygen species. [ . . . ] These results indicate that limonene has a potential to reduce airway remodeling and [airway hyperresponsiveness] in asthma model.” (Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Kohasu, Oko, Nankoku, Japan)
“...it was found that limonene and the ozone–limonene reaction mixture reduced allergic inflammation possibly due to antioxidant properties. [ . . . ] antiinflammatory properties of the tested limonene-containing pollutants might attenuate airway allergy” (Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark)